It emerges at the lower border of the pons above the olive. Three branches originate here:. The labyrinthine segment is the shortest only measuring mm. It is also the narrowest and the most susceptible to vascular compromise. It gives off three branches:. Lying between the deep and superficial lobes of the gland the nerve divides into a superior temporofacial and and inferior cervicofacial branches.
Temporal bone - Anatomy
Facial nerve | Radiology Reference Article | ms-racing.info
The facial nerve is one of the key cranial nerves with a complex and broad range of functions. Although at first glance it is the motor nerve of facial expression which begins as a trunk and emerges from the parotid gland as five branches see facial nerve branches mnemonic , it has taste and parasympathetic fibers that relay in a complex manner. The facial nerve is the only cranial nerve that may show normal post-contrast enhancement, although this applies only to the labyrinthine segment up to the stylomastoid foramen. Enhancement of the other segments of the facial nerve and other cranial nerves is considered pathologic. Three brainstem nuclei contribute to the facial nerve: one motor, one secretomotor, and one sensory:. The facial nerve has six named segments facial nerve segments mnemonic :.
Preferred names of the anatomic structures given in the Table. The asterisk marks where the deep layer of the deep temporal fascia D-DTF abuts the posterosuperior surface of the zygomatic arch ZA on 10 sides. The superficial layers and the deep layers of the deep temporal fascia DTF fuse at the anterosuperior surface of the ZA on 4 sides of the cadaveric heads.
The temporal branches of the facial nerve are often called the frontal branches when they reach the supraciliary region. The nerves provide motor innervation to the frontalis, the corrugator, the procerus, and, occasionally, a portion of the orbicularis oculi muscles. Nerve injury is revealed by inability to raise the eyebrow or wrinkle the forehead. The temporal branch or branches of the facial nerve leave the parotid gland immediately inferior to the zygomatic arch Fig. The general course is from a point 0,5 cm below the tragus to a point 1,5 cm above the lateral eyebrow 2.